With risk factors for CVD continuing to rise, early identification and management of chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnea are necessary for prevention. Pregnancy is a natural stress test for women with risk factors who may be predisposed to CVD and offers a unique opportunity to not only recognize the disease but also implement effective and long-lasting strategies for prevention. Myopathy, arrhythmias, cardiac failure, thromboembolic disease, aortic disease, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, thromboembolic disease, and cerebrovascular illnesses are only a few of the cardiac issues that can occur during pregnancy. Increased cardiac output, heart rate, and vascular volume are all signs of cardiovascular changes during pregnancy, along with a sharp decrease in vascular resistance. Cardiac surgery has mortality rates for the mother and fetus that are about 10% and 30%, respectively, making it intrinsically risky for both.
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